Wednesday, December 31, 2014

When the Lord roars (Amos 1-5a)

When the Lord Roars (Amos 1-5a)
Dr. Paul Manuel—2000

Among the increasing number of educational toys on the market today are several that make use of the latest technology. As with any such gadget, though, they are only as good as their programming.
Matthew's mother was watching her five-year-old work on his Speak-and-Spell computer. He was concentrating intensely, typing words for the computer to say back to him. When Matthew keyed the word God, to his surprise, the computer said, "Word not found." He tried again and received the same reply. With great disgust, he stared at the computer and told it in no uncertain terms, "God is not going to like this!" (Adapted from Rowell 1996:79)
The computer did not have God in its vocabulary. It is worse, however, for a nation not have God in its society, for then there is little restraint on behavior, and people think they can act as they please not matter what the consequence for others. That is a situation God likes even less. It is also what Amos faces as he travels north to relay the divine evaluation When the LORD Roars.

The tension that followed the division of Solomon's kingdom into north and south eventually dissipated as the rulers of Israel and Judah learned it was better not to be at each other's throats all the time. The peace they established allowed each country to concentrate on its own domestic interests and to establish a measure of economic prosperity. As one commentator notes, however, the prosperity of the Northern Kingdom did not extend to all its citizens.
Affluence, exploitation and the profit motive were the most notable features of the society which Amos observed and in which he worked. The rich were affluent enough to have several houses apiece (3:15), to go in for rather ostentatiously expensive furniture (6:4) and not to deny themselves any bodily satisfaction (3:12; 4:1; 6:6). On the other hand the poor were really poor and were shamelessly exploited: they suffered from property rackets (2:6, 7), legal rackets (5:10, 12) and business rackets (8:5) and the defenceless man with no influence came off worst every time. When the poor could not contribute to the rich they were simply ignored and left to be broken (6:6). Moneymaking and personal covetousness ruled all: the men lived for their offices (8:5), the women lived for excitement (4:1), the rulers lived for frivolity (6:1-6) (Motyer 1975:15).
This was the Northern Kingdom in the first half of the eighth century B.C. Both Israel under King Jeroboam II and Judah under King Uzziah experienced a period of growth while their common enemy, Assyria, turned elsewhere. Control over the trade routes and economic expansion provided a new wealth that overshadowed the values of a traditionally agricultural society. With affluence came a self-sufficiency that lessened the need to seek the direction of the LORD. This did not mean that religion was declining. On the contrary, people thronged the temples at Dan and Bethel.

Tuesday, December 23, 2014

Christmas (Heb 2:17)

From the Crib to the Cross (Heb 2:17)
Dr. Paul Manuel—2005

Gratitude is not always a natural response to generosity, especially among children, who often receive things without giving any thought to their value.
One Christmas, the mother of three children decided that she was no longer going to remind them of their thank-you note duties. As a result, their grandmother never received acknowledgments of the generous checks she had given. Things were different, however, the following year. "The children came over in person to thank me," the grandmother told a friend triumphantly. "How wonderful!" her friend exclaimed. "They must be getting more mature." "I don't think that was the reason." the grandmother replied. "Then what caused the change in their behavior?" "This year...I didn't sign the checks."
Thankfully, when Jesus made atonement for our sin, he did not wait for us to express our appreciation but signed the check immediately, and with his very life.

God could have arranged for Jesus to appear on earth as an adult for the short period it would have taken to die, rise from the dead, then return to heaven. Instead, He had Jesus appear on earth as an infant, grow to manhood, and minister publicly for three years. That span of time From the Crib to the Cross gave us a greater appreciation of the sacrifice he made,1 as the author of Hebrews explains.
Heb 2:17 For this reason he had to be made like his brothers in every way, in order that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in service to God, and that he might make atonement for the sins of the people.
The author of Hebrews says that...

I. Jesus became a mortal like us.

...not by accident but by design. It was for a reason....
  • He was purposeful.
Jesus does not wander onto the scene of human history only to wander off again. He was a man on a mission, and it was not just to provide us with a good example, as some have suggested. The mission was clear from the very beginning.
  • When the angel informed Joseph about Mary's pregnancy, he explained what the boy would accomplish
Matt 1:21 She will give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins."
  • When the disciples were arguing among themselves about which of them was greater, Jesus explained to them how their attitude was out of step with the purpose of his ministry.2
Mark 10:45 [= Matt 20:28] For...the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.
This is highly unusual. How many people know the reason for their existence?

Monday, December 22, 2014

Christmas 2014

Dr. and Mrs. Paul Manuel
Christmas 20014

Dear Family and Friends,

All major appliances wear out. You hope the dishwasher or clothes dryer will last several years, and you may even purchase a service agreement to protect against costly repairs. There is a limit, though, to what such a contract will cover, and repeated use will eventually wear out any machine. Usually some clue will alert you when an appliance has reached the limit of its useful lifespan. The dishes are not getting very clean or the clothes are taking forever (it seems) to dry. At that point, you may need to retire the machine and replace it with a new one.

The hunt for a replacement often involves considering several factors: cost, features, and reviews by others who purchased the same unit. Eventually, you decide on the model to get, and you make the purchase, perhaps wondering how long it will last before you need to repeat the process yet again. (As you may guess, the process is what Linda and I went through this year, not just once but three times with three major appliances.)

As we approach the celebration of Christmas, it is with an appreciation that the message of the holiday, no matter how often we repeat it, never wears out. The proclamation of the angel to the shepherds, no matter how often we hear it, remains good news today.

I bring you good news of great joy that will be for all the people.
Today in the town of David a Savior has been born to you;
he is Christ the Lord.

Although we celebrate this commemoration of his birth every year, the author of Hebrews called what the incarnation accomplished a singular event.

He entered the Most Holy Place once for all by his own blood,
having obtained eternal redemption.

In other words, we celebrate many times what only happened one time. That, of course, is the nature of birthdays: They mark repeatedly a unique occurrence—a particular person's entry into this world. The difference in Jesus' case, however, is that, unlike other birthdays, his birthday also marks a unique accomplishment—the salvation of that same world. Moreover, this singular accomplishment has had repercussions for people throughout history, even before his advent (as "the Lamb that was slain from the creation of the world" Rev 13:8). No one else has ever had such a pervasive and permanent affect.

Unlike major appliances, all of which wear out at some point, Jesus' atonement, which his birthday portends, never wears out. Moreover, "he always lives to intercede for [us]" (Heb 7:25), an additional benefit we can experience all year. May the joy of his advent and the abiding effect of his atonement enhance your appreciation of the season. As the heavenly host declared that evening, "Glory to God in the highest."

Pastor and Linda

Thursday, November 27, 2014

Thanksgiving (Ps 116:12)

 Rendering Thanks (Ps 116:12)
Dr. Paul Manuel—2000

As we prepare to celebrate Thanksgiving this week, I thought it appropriate to look at one of the Thanksgiving Psalms, Ps 116, written not for our holiday but for use in the temple whenever someone wanted to express gratitude to God. We will consider just one verse.
Ps 116:12 What shall I render unto the LORD for all His benefits toward me? (KJV)
Reviewing God's benefits toward us is a good exercise, especially at Thanksgiving. A particularly appropriate hymn for this occasion is Count Your Blessings, because even when life is not the best, there are still many things for which we can be grateful, if we but take the time to look for them. Think for a few moments of the one thing God has done for you recently for which you are most thankful.... Now hold that thought.

In church, we have a time of praise and petition when, in addition to prayer requests, people can tell about how God has blessed them that week. The overwhelming majority of those sessions, though, is long on petitions and short on praise. Sometimes, we have no items of praise from the congregation. That must be when God is on vacation.

The psalmist is thankful that God delivered him from danger. He writes in v. 8: "You have rescued my soul from death, my eyes from tears, my feet from stumbling." This is apparently just the latest in a series of good things because here, in v. 12, he speaks about "all [God's] benefits."1 What is unusual is that the psalmist does not simply relate his experience. He considers his response by asking, "What shall I render unto the LORD for all His benefits toward me?"2

Our normal response when He blesses us is simply to say, "Thank You, God." The psalmist realizes that is not enough. He must do more and, in the next two verses, mentions two things he will do, both of which will be a testimony to others of what God has done for him.
  • The first thing he will do is make a public declaration: "I shall lift up the cup of salvation and call upon the name of the LORD" (v. 13).3
He is probably referring to the statement he will make as he pours a cup of wine on the altar to accompany his (votive or freewill) offering.4 He will tell the congregation about God's goodness to him. He will make a public declaration.
  • The second thing he will do is make a public demonstration: "I shall pay my vows to the LORD... in the presence of all His people" (v. 14).5
You hear stories about people in tough situations who say, "God, if you get me out of this jam, I'll...go to church faithfully every week." Perhaps you have even made such a promise. The problem with that kind of vow is that it is made in private (just between you and God) and—after the danger has passed—is rarely mentioned, let alone fulfilled, in public. The psalmist states that he will make good on his vow by showing others what he has promised as a way of proving the sincerity of his gratitude to God. He will make a public demonstration.
In a Peanuts cartoon strip, Lucy asks Charlie Brown for help with her homework. "I'll be eternally grateful," she promises. "Fair enough," replies Charlie. "I've never had anyone be eternally grateful before. Just subtract four from ten to get how many apples the farmer had left." "That's it!" Lucy exclaimed. "I have to be eternally grateful for that? I was robbed! I can't be eternally grateful for that. It was too easy." Deadpan, Charlie replies, "Well, whatever you think is fair." "How about if I just say, 'Thanks Bro?" Lucy offered. As Charlie goes outside, he meets Linus. "Where've you been Charlie Brown?" "Helping Lucy with her homework." "Did she appreciate it?" Linus asks. "Yes," Charlie Brown answered, "but at a greatly reduced price." (Adapted from Hodgin 1998:152)
I am not suggesting that you should make a sacrifice or a vow. But when God has done something for you, perhaps like that one thing you recalled for which you are most thankful, it may be appropriate to ask this question: "What shall I render unto the LORD for all His benefits toward me?"— something more than the reduced price of "Thank You, God."

For the Bibliography and Endnotes, see the pdf here.

Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Thanksgiving (Ps 67)

A Reason for the Request (Ps 67)
Dr. Paul Manuel—2003

We all have reasons why we do things a certain way, and we should be prepared to explain our rationale.
Jack and Mary visited their newly married daughter, who was preparing her first Thanksgiving dinner. Mary noticed the turkey thawing in the kitchen sink with a dish drainer inverted over the bird. When she asked why a drainer was covering the turkey, her daughter said, "Mom, you always did it that way." "Yes," Mary replied, "but you don't have a cat!"
We all have reasons why we do things a certain way, and we should be prepared to explain our rationale. That may apply to preparing a dinner for guests, and it certainly applies to submitting a petition before God. We must be ready to give Him A Reason for the Request.

The bulletin insert includes a translation of Ps 67, our text for the message.1 In each stanza of the poem, the psalmist makes a request, gives his reason for asking, then indicates what God's response should be.2 Ps 67 was probably a hymn used in congregational worship (see the frequent references to "us" and the repeated refrain). Except for one line, this could be a song for any occasion, but the first part of v. 6 distinguishes it as a hymn celebrating the harvest,3 and includes a request for future harvests as well.4

The poet leads up to that request indirectly, though, first by considering God's grace and God's government. That puzzled me. What do they have in common with the harvest? After some reflection, I realized that all three are aspects of God's providential care, ways in which He acts behind the scenes to work out His purposes and to benefit His people, not just once but on a regular basis:
  • Divine grace—in the constant outpouring of His favor,
  • Divine government—in the ongoing administration of His sovereignty, and
  • Divine goodness—here, in the annual provision of His bounty.
As Israel celebrates its thanksgiving, the author of this psalm has the congregation make three requests. His example can show us how we should pray when we celebrate our Thanksgiving, as well as at other times.

Tuesday, November 25, 2014

Thanksgiving (Ps 65)

Inspiration for Thanksgiving (Ps 65)
Dr. Paul Manuel—1999

It is good to see you all here this evening. Despite the busyness of tomorrow, you have chosen to begin the holiday by giving thanks together in God's presence. Not everyone, of course, shares your obvious priorities.
A mother was trying to convince her two children that attending the Thanksgiving Eve service was a time-honored tradition. They were simply excited about having the next day off from school and did not at all see the necessity or desirability of spending any of that time in church. To bolster her argument, she picked up a Thanksgiving card they had received. On the front was a pilgrim family in typical pilgrim garb walking toward a small wooden church. "See," she said, "even back in their day, children enjoyed going with their parents to church." The older of her two peered intently at the picture and replied, "Oh, yeah, then why is the dad carrying that rifle?" (Adapted from Samra 1997:183; 1998:73)
I have heard of a "shotgun wedding." This must be "shotgun worship." I trust you did not come under such coercion.

As we look for appropriate ways to express our adoration of God, including gratitude for His manifold blessing, one source of inspiration is the Psalms. In these Hebrew poems, written millennia ago, we find expressions of life's experiences that are often close to our own, and we might wish we knew their authors better. What were the trials and triumphs that motivated them to pen these words? The language is often so general that it could apply to many situations, which is, of course, why it appeals to us, because it could apply to our situation as well and offer us Inspiration for Thanksgiving.

In the early part of this century, two German scholars revolutionized the study of Psalms by bringing us closer to understanding their original setting.1 They proposed that most of these compositions fall into just a few categories and that these categories reflect the circumstances at the time the biblical authors were writing. These scholars also proposed that the writers intended their poems to be expressions of their own experience or that they wrote them for use by the community in the public assembly. One of the categories is called Psalms of Thanksgiving because in them the authors are conveying their gratitude for God's great goodness. It is not that the LORD has delivered them from an enemy or protected them from some natural calamity, but they recognize His blessing to them in the ordinary course of life.

Monday, November 24, 2014

Thanksgiving (1 Chr 16:41)

The Tradition of Giving Thanks (1 Chr 16:41)
Dr. Paul Manuel—2005

The holidays are often times for families to get together. When children grow up and move away, such times become more precious but also more precarious, as the busyness of life can cause us to neglect those important occasions.
A father in Florida calls his son in New York and says to him, "I hate to tell you, but we've got some troubles here in the house. Your mother and I can't stand each other anymore, and I've had it! I want to live out the rest of my years in peace. I'm telling you now, so you and your sisters won't go into shock later when I move out." He hangs up, and the son immediately calls his sisters in Illinois to tell them the news. The oldest says, "I'll handle this." She calls Florida and says to her father, "Don't do anything till we all get there! We'll be there Wednesday night." The father agrees, hangs up the phone, and turns to his wife, "Okay, they're coming for Thanksgiving.... Now, what are we going to tell them for Christmas?"
We must not lose sight of what God has given us, through family, friends, or in other ways, and we must express and demonstrate to Him our gratitude.

The apostle Paul, by example and by exhortation, repeatedly stresses in his letters the importance of thanksgiving. He is full of gratitude for the many blessings God has given to him and to his readers.1
Rom 6:17 [T]hanks be to God that, though you used to be slaves to sin, you wholeheartedly obeyed [sound] teaching....
I Cor 1:4 I always thank God for you because of his grace given you in Christ Jesus.
2 Thess 2:13 [We] thank God for you...because from the beginning God chose you to be saved....
He also calls upon the churches to express their own gratitude for God's manifold goodness.2
Eph 5:19b Sing and make music in your heart to the Lord, 20 always giving thanks to God the Father for everything....
Phil 4:6 Do not be anxious about anything, but in everything, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God.
1 Thess 5:18 [G]ive thanks in all circumstances, for this is God's will for you....

Love that sends (John 3:16-17)

In the Gospels—Love that Sends (John 3:16-17)1
Dr. Paul Manuel—2005

To avoid unnecessary strife in a marriage, it is best to reach an agreement when it comes to making expensive purchases, even when it involves a gift from one partner to the other.
A woman was especially attracted to a new outfit she had seen in the mall but knew that her husband would not agree to her purchasing it. Still, she could not get it out of her mind. Whether she was driving in the car or doing laundry, she thought about that outfit. After having dreamt about it one night, she decided to approach her husband. "I had a wonderful dream last night," she said. "In it, you gave me $200 to buy a new outfit. I was thrilled. Because you love me, I know you wouldn't want to do anything to spoil a perfect dream like that?" "Of course not," her husband replied... "Keep the $200." (Adapted from Hodgin 1998:145)
Far more significant than a new outfit is what God gave in the person of His son. It is one of the Great Expressions of God's Love, recounted In the Gospels—Love that Sends.

One of the most familiar exchanges in the gospels is the conversation between Nicodemus and Jesus in John 3. It is also one of the most puzzling, at least for Nicodemus. He comes to Jesus on behalf of others who are interested in what this rabbi has to say, recognizing that he represents God.
John 3:2c For no one could perform the miraculous signs you are doing if God were not with him.
In response, Jesus wastes no time on polite conversation but gets right to point he
wishes to make.
John 3:3 ...Jesus declared, "I tell you the truth, no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again."
Whatever Nicodemus hoped to learn, he probably did not expect it to include the suggestion that his entry to God's kingdom was in question, that he might need something more than what he already had.

In the first century, there were several erroneous views in circulation about how a person secured salvation.
  • According to one view, the right genes (not jeans) get you into heaven. If you come from good parentage, specifically Jewish stock, your salvation is guaranteed. But...
Matt 3:7a ...when [John the Baptist] saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to where he was baptizing, he said to them... 8 "Produce fruit in keeping with repentance. 9 not.., say ...'We have Abraham as our father.' I tell you that out of these stones God can raise up children for Abraham."
The right genes do not get you into heaven.

Saturday, November 22, 2014

Love that spares (Lam 3:22-27)

In the Writings: Love That Spares (Lam 3:22-27)
Dr. Paul Manuel—2005

We are by nature given to complaining. It seems to start when we are born and just keeps going.
When Janet had her baby, she took a leave of absence from her job for a few weeks. During that time, she was talking with a friend, who asked how things were going and if there was anything about her experience she had not expected. "Well," Janet replied, "I was really surprised by all the whining and crying. It seemed to go on incessantly for days. boss stopped." (Adapted from Hodgin 1994:51-52)
The Bible contains several complaints from God's people when they experience hardship. These grievances appear most frequently in the Psalms. They also constitute an entire book that we rarely read, a book entitled...Lamentations.

When Babylon (modern-day Iraq) launched its western offensive toward the Mediterranean Sea, King Jehoiakim decided it would not be in Judah's interest to resist, and he agreed to become a vassal state of the empire. This meant he paid a hefty, annual tribute to Babylon, but that minimized foreign interference in Judah's domestic affairs. The empire stationed no troops there and was content to have a friendly government on its southern border opposite its chief rival in the region: Egypt. The absence of a Babylonian presence, however, gave Jehoiakim the false impression that the empire was unconcerned about Judah and—like a tenant who thinks he can take advantage of an absentee landlord—Jehoiakim decided to be delinquent with his payments.
  • In response, Babylon invaded, ravaged the countryside, deported the king as well as his administration, and set up a new government with Jehoiachin, his son, on the throne.
Not long after, Jehoiachin did the same thing his father had done. Again...
  • In response, Babylon invaded, laid siege to Jerusalem, deported the king as well as most of the upper and middle classes, and set up another new government with Zedekiah (Jehoiachin's uncle) on the throne.
Not long after, Zedekiah did the same thing his nephew had done. Again...
  • In response, Babylon invaded, destroyed Jerusalem, including the temple, deported the king as well as most of the remaining populace, and set up a provisional, non-Judean governor.
This spelled the end of the southern kingdom. With the demise of its religious and political centers, with the dismantling of its government, Judah and the hope it represented ceased to exist. In fact, when news of the capital's fall reached Jews already in exile, who thought they might soon return home, they said...
Ezek 37:11b ...our hope is gone; we are cut off.

Friday, November 14, 2014

Love that saves (Isa 43:1-7)

In the Prophets: Love that Saves (Isa 43:1-7)1
Dr. Paul Manuel—2005

As you look back over your life, there are probably a few things you wish you had done differently. You may also wonder how succeeding generations will view your legacy. That may depend, in part, on the historian who records your affairs.
Jack Starr was working on his family's genealogy, hoping to complete it before he and his wife went to visit her parents. He wanted to impress them with his lineage and knew the ship captain he had discovered in some old letters would not be enough. Then he came across a picture of his great-great uncle Remus, a fellow sorely lacking in character. It showed him standing at the gallows. On the back of the picture were the words:
Remus Starr: Horse thief, sent to Montana Territorial Prison in 1885. Escaped in 1887. Robbed the Montana Flyer six times. Caught by Pinkerton detectives, convicted and hanged in 1889.
That certainly did not reflect well on the family name, but Jack needed another significant entry in his family tree. After some thought, he decided that he could revise things a bit. He scanned the picture, cropped it, and, with the help of image-processing software, edited out everything but Uncle Remus's head. Then he added a new version of the text:
Remus Starr was a famous cowboy in the Montana Territory. His business empire grew to include the acquisition of valuable equestrian assets, and he had intimate dealings with the Montana railroad. Beginning in 1885, he devoted several years of his life to service at a government facility, finally taking leave to resume his involvement with the railroad. In 1887, he was a key player in a vital investigation run by the renowned Pinkerton Detective Agency. Remus passed away in 1889 during an important civic function held in his honor, when the platform upon which he was standing collapsed.
Sometimes, we might wish we could revise our own history that easily. Israel probably would like to have done the same, especially after the nation's sin sent the people to exile in Babylon. They probably wondered if the Lord still cared about them, and it is for the exiles that Isaiah records one of the Great Expressions of God's Love.

Most of the Old Testament, especially after the exodus from Egypt, is about God's involvement with the people of Israel. As gentiles, we may wonder what relevance such portions of scripture have for us. Uncertain of the answer, some ministers are uncomfortable preaching from the Old Testament. That severely restricts the material they can use, but, more importantly, it gives the impression that two-thirds of God's word has no significance for Christians. Other ministers attempt to avoid this problem by reinterpreting the Old Testament. They think God has changed the people of His choosing and that the promises God once made to Israel now belong to the Church. Neither ignoring the Old Testament nor reinterpreting its meaning does justice to God's word. Yet, if it is not about us, what good is it to us?

Thursday, November 13, 2014

Law that surprises (Exod 34:6-7)

In the Law: Law that Surprises (Exod 34:6-7)
Dr. Paul Manuel—2005

What tests your patience? There is usually something that pushes you to the limit of what you will endure and causes you to say, "Enough!"
Veteran American League baseball umpire Bill Guthrie was working behind the plate one afternoon, and the catcher for the visiting team was repeatedly protesting his calls. Guthrie endured this for a number of innings, and then called a halt. "Son," he said softly, "you've been a big help to me in calling balls and strikes today, and I appreciate it. But I think I've got the hang of it now, so I'm going to ask you to go to the clubhouse and show whoever's there how to take a shower." (Hodgin 1998:15)
There are many things that test our patience, some appropriately, others inappropriately. In the wilderness, the Israelites allow Moses' absence to test their patience inappropriately, which leads to one of the Great Expressions of God's Love in scripture.

There is a peculiar notion among some Christians that the God of the Old Testament is different from the God of the New Testament or, at least, that God acts differently in the Old Testament than He does in the New Testament, that He is at first stern and vengeful but then becomes gentle and compassionate. Such a distorted view ignores passages in both testaments that show both sides of His nature. His love, for example, is evident throughout the scriptures and features prominently in each of the five major collections of holy writ. That attribute will be the topic of our next series, entitled Great Expressions of God's Love, first, In the Law, where we find Love that Surpasses.1

After the Lord graciously delivered the Israelites from slavery in Egypt, He brought them to Mt. Sinai, where He gave them the law, the regulations governing their behavior as the people of God. It is important to note the order of those two events. The Lord did not give them the law first and expect them to obey it before He would deliver them. He delivered them first and then told them what He expected. That has always been the order of God's dealing with man. Beginning in the Old Testament and continuing through the New Testament: It has always been grace, then torah.2

This order is not just what God does first to establish a relationship with man; it is what God does most to maintain that relationship, even when His people reject Him, which is what happened in...

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Love that sacrifices (1 John 4:9-10)

Love That Sacrifices (1 John 4:9-10)1
Dr. Paul Manuel—2005

Most jobs are demanding in some way. They may require physical exertion that leaves your body exhausted or mental exertion that leaves your head spinning. Most jobs, however, are not dangerous, so when an element of risk arises, it may be best to question the matter first.
The city editor just heard that a power line had fallen across Main Street in a storm. He went out into the newsroom and assigned the story to one of his reporters. "Jack, check this out, and find out if the wire is live or not." How am I supposed to do that?" Jack asked. "I may not live to write the story." "You're right," the editor replied. "Take Kevin with you.... After you touch it, he can write the story." (Adapted from Hodgin 1994:314)
Questioning an assignment does not necessarily get you out of that assignment.

Apparently, the editor thought the story was worth the risk of his reporter's life. Thankfully, Jesus considered our redemption to be worth the risk of his own life and was willing to embody one of the Great Expressions of God's LoveLove that Sacrifices.

In the late first century, proponents of a philosophy called Gnosticism find aspects of Christianity akin to what they believe. The idea that a person can be saved from this life is similar to what they teach, although salvation in their view is not from the penalty of one's sin but from the bondage of one's flesh. Gnostics regard the physical realm, including the human body, as inherently evil. Only the spiritual realm and man's spiritual body, which he enters at death, are good. In fact, according to the Gnostics, there is no relationship between the physical and the spiritual, and what you do in the physical realm has no bearing on your status in the spiritual realm.

Monday, June 23, 2014

A new covenant

Dr. Paul Manuel—2003

God states in Jer 31 that He will make a "new covenant" with His people and will write His law on their hearts.1
Jer 31:31 "The time is coming," declares the LORD, "when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah. 32 It will not be like the covenant I made with their forefathers when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, because they broke my covenant, though I was a husband to them," declares the LORD.
Some interpreters take this feature to be a (even "the") distinguishing innovation of the new covenant. God does indeed say that the new covenant will be unlike the old covenant. But in what way(s) will it be different? To highlight the contrast, He begins with elements common to both.2
Jer 31:33 "This is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after that time," declares the LORD. "I will put my law in their minds and write it on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people"3
Prominent in this description is Torah, which constitutes the terms of the covenant and distinguishes Israel as God's people.4

As generations after Sinai lapsed in their devotion to God, they failed also to transmit Torah and lost access to it, necessitating a review of the law prior to a renewal of the covenant. At two such times of national repentance, people listened to the reading of Torah, expressing astonishment and dismay over what they had missed. The first incident was in the time of Josiah, whose reign followed fifty-seven years of apostasy under Manasseh and Amon.

Sunday, June 22, 2014


Dr. Paul Manuel—2007

Because God takes a long view of history, much of what He plans is relevant over several generations. This is especially true of His covenants, the contracts the Lord establishes that indicate what He expects from His people and what they can expect from their God. Each new generation must recognize whatever covenant is in effect and follow its provisions or forfeit its protection. That decision may entail a simple review of the covenant or, after a period of apostasy, it may involve a formal renewal of the covenant.1

I. The Abrahamic Covenant

Before Israel became a nation, God established a covenant with Abraham promising to bless him and his descendants if they would recognize the LORD as their God.2
Gen 17:1 Now when Abram was ninety-nine years old, the LORD appeared to Abram and said to him, "I am God Almighty; Walk before Me, and be blameless.... 7 I will establish My covenant between Me and you and your descendants after you throughout their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and to your descendants after you. 8 I will give to you and to your descendants after you, the land of your sojournings, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God.... 10 This is My covenant, which you shall keep, between Me and you and your descendants after you: every male among you shall be circumcised.... 11b it shall be the sign of the covenant between Me and you.... 12a ...throughout your generations.... 13b for an everlasting covenant."
The terms of this contract were straightforward, and Abraham's descendants generally heeded their part,3 because God simply reiterates the promise later.4

Saturday, June 21, 2014

4. Dependable deliverance for God's people

Dr. Paul Manuel—2003

One of the most important aspects of life, something whose very nature encourages us to take it for granted, is that many events are predictable. However much we may like variety or surprises, we depend on a considerable amount of sameness to keep things going. In fact, more often than not, it is the disruptions in our schedule, the things we did not anticipate, that cause us anxiety.

Consider how much of your preparation to be here depended on a certainty that things would be as you expected them to be.
  • That the glasses or contacts you put on would be the same prescription this morning as they were yesterday.
  • That the road you took to get here went the same way it did last week.
  • That the coffee you heated in the microwave was not actually grape juice.
  • That the service would be in English and not in German.
We base our lives on the assumption that most things, at least, remain constant.1
It had been several years since Jack's last eye exam, and his wife was pestering him to make an appointment. Naturally, the more she pestered, the more he procrastinated. Finally, she made the appointment for him. The day before the appointment, he was in an affectionate mood. He gave her a big kiss, a warm hug, and said, "You really look good to me." "That's it," she replied. "I'm canceling your appointment." (Adapted from Hodgin 1998:17)
Change is not always an improvement. There are some things you would want to keep the same. Without consistency and certainty, you would not be able to plan; you would have no idea what the future holds. This is especially true in your relationship with God. The fact that He "does not change like shifting shadows" (Jms 1:17) makes Him reliable!2 Coupled with His constant concern for you, that reliability means that God Provides Dependable Deliverance for His People.

In this fourth and final installment of our series, the writer of Ps 62 makes dependability the theme of his poem, using the word "surely" six times in these twelve verses.3 Nowhere else in scripture does it occur this frequently. He wants people to recognize how the dependability of good things can help them to cope with the regularity of bad things. The psalm has three parts, set off by the repetition of a refrain in vv. 1-2 and 5-6, and by the repetition of the musical term Selah in vv. 4 and 8 (crescendo? pause?). The author opens with a most important aspect of dependability for his audience. To whomever else they may turn for aid, they can be confident that...

Friday, June 20, 2014

3. Final deliverance for God's people

Dr. Paul Manuel—2003

The pervasiveness of evil, that it rears its ugly head even where we might not expect it, often requires strong measures to eradicate it.
A woman purchased a parrot whose previous owner had taught him profanity, and she decided to reform him, so she taught him a number of Christian words and phrases. One day, the righteous owner caught the bird cursing. She grabbed him and said, "I'll teach You never to talk that way again." She put him in the freezer and shut the door. A few minutes later, she took him out and asked, "Have you learned your lesson?" The parrot shivered and replied, "Yes, Ma'am."
After a while, the lesson wore off, and she returned the parrot to the freezer but forgot him for some time, so he nearly froze to death. She finally retrieved him and leaned him in his cage to thaw out. When he began to move and talk a little, she asked him again, "Have you learned your lesson?" "YES, MA'AM!" he replied. He sat there quietly for a few minutes, shivering, and then said, "May I ask you a question?" "Certainly," she answered. "I thought I knew all the bad words there were," the parrot began... "but just what did that turkey in there say?" (Adapted from Hodgin 1994:284-285)
The parrot saw that evil may require strong measures to eradicate it.

The reason we need deliverance in the first place is because someone or something is preventing us from doing what God wants us to do. Consequently, deliverance often requires God to exercise force, even to the point of destruction. In the first message of this series, we noted that Pharaoh resisted God's attempts to deliver Israel and that it took the destruction of Egypt's crops, livestock, firstborn, and military before Israel was free. So it will be when God Provides Final Deliverance for His People. In the end...

Thursday, June 19, 2014

2. Spiritual deliverance for God's people

Dr. Paul Manuel—2003

One of the tests of a person's character is his ability to persevere in difficult times.
The Chicago Bears were losing a football game at half-time. In the locker room, their coach, Mike Ditka, wanted to illustrate the need for them to hang on and give it their best. He reached his hand into a bucket and, when he pulled it out, there was a snapping turtle clamped securely to it—not a pretty sight. With the turtle hanging on his wounded hand, Mike continued to lecture his astonished players. He assured the players that they could do the same thing if they were really committed and determined.

Then he asked for a volunteer. After an extended period of silence, one of the players stepped forward and agreed to go next. Ditka thanked him for his courage and said he could proceed as soon as the turtle was pried loose from his hand. The player said, "That's okay, Coach. You can leave the turtle where it is. Just stick out your other hand...and I'll bite that one instead." (Adapted from Hodgin 1994:257)
Perseverance, though not quite as this player understood it, does indicate the quality of a person's character, in sporting events as well as in spiritual matters. When you place your faith in Jesus' atoning work, God delivers you from the ultimate penalty of your sin: facing His wrath for all eternity. Instead, you can look forward to a long and glorious relationship with your deliverer. There is usually a transition period, however, between your justification—when God gives you a clean slate—and your glorification—when God gives you a new body. It is the current period, during which you struggle against what you once actively pursued or passively accepted. In this struggle, you have two powerful opponents, one internal (sin) and the other external (Satan), and there are times when you may feel hopelessly outgunned. Nevertheless, you are not defenseless, because God Provides Spiritual Deliverance for His People, enabling you to defeat these foes. Please follow in your Bibles, as we first consider...

A. How does God provide deliverance from sin?

Paul addresses this in Rom 6, where he answers a hypothetical question: If, in Jesus, God provides sufficient grace for all my sin, should I sin more to get more grace? Put another way, what motivation does a person have not to sin? Why should you choose right behavior over wrong behavior? The immediate answer is that...

Wednesday, June 18, 2014

1. Physical deliverance for God's people

Dr. Paul Manuel—2003

When preaching, I generally treat a single biblical book or a single passage rather than doing a topical study, but this series is on the subject of divine deliverance. In each session I will address a different kind of deliverance that God provides for His people:
  • Physical deliverance
  • Spiritual deliverance
  • Final deliverance
  • Dependable deliverance
There are times when you find yourself in a difficult predicament and hope, some how, to escape. The car begins to slide on an icy road. The cashier finishes totaling a month's worth of groceries, and you discover your wallet is at home. Whether endangering or embarrassing, such situations make us long for deliverance.
A blonde [no one in this congregation] decides to try horseback riding, even though she has had no lessons or prior experience. She mounts the horse unassisted, and it immediately springs into motion. It gallops along at a steady and rhythmic pace, but the blonde begins to slip from the saddle. In terror, she grabs for the horse's mane but cannot get a firm grip. She tries to throw her arms around the horse's neck but slides down the side anyway. The horse gallops along, seemingly ignorant of its slipping rider. Finally, giving up her frail grip, the blonde attempts to leap from the horse and throw herself to safety. Unfortunately, her foot becomes entangled in the stirrup, and she is now at the mercy of the horse's pounding hooves as her head strikes repeatedly against the ground. She starts to lose consciousness, but to her great fortune... Bobby, the Wal-Mart greeter, runs over and unplugs the horse.
Even better than Bobby, the Wal-Mart greeter, God is able to help when you need deliverance.

We will begin our series by looking at a passage that describes Physical Deliverance and asking quite a different question: Why does God even bother to deliver? Then we will extend the consideration to other passages to determine whether or not He is still in this line of work. Finally, we will try to predict when—that is, under what conditions—He might deliver. Because this is topical, I will either be moving through a large portion of text or referring to several passages, so please follow in your Bibles.

Tuesday, June 17, 2014

How should we think about the Sabbath?

Dr. Paul Manuel—2014

Because of the length of this study (35 pages) most of it is available only in this pdf.
Blessed is the man...who keeps the Sabbath.
(Isa 56:2)

Introduction    3
The Motivation of Sabbath Observance: Understanding the People and Purpose of the Sabbath—or—Why Should One Keep the Sabbath?
A. At the dawn of creation (Gen 2:1-3)
      Query: What does Jesus mean, "the Sabbath was made for man"?
B. After the exodus from Egypt (Exod 16:1-5, 21-30)
      Query: Does keeping 'one day in seven' meet God's expectation?
C. On the mountain of Sinai (Exod 19:3-6; 20:1-11)
      Query: Are the Ten Commandments universal?
D. In the wilderness of Sinai (Exod 31:12-17)
      Query: What is God's purpose for the Sabbath?
E. At the border of Canaan (Deut 5:1-3, 12-15)
      Query: What does the Sabbath commemorate?
F. During the exile in Babylon (Isa 56:3,6-8)
      Query: What was the status of the "foreigner"?
G. In the first century (Acts 15:5, 19-21)
      Query: To what extent do gentiles participate in the covenant?
The Method of Sabbath Observance: Understanding the Practice of the Sabbath—or—How Should One Keep the Sabbath?
A. Collecting manna (Exod 16:23-30)
B. Promoting rest (Exod 20:1-2, 8-11)
C. Eschewing work (Exod 31:12-17; 34:21; 35:1-3)
D. Gathering together (Lev 23:1-3; Num 28:1-2,9-10)
E. Collecting wood (Num 15:32-36)
F. Conducting business (Amos 8:4-5)
G. Transporting property (Jer 17:21-27)
H. Finding joy (Isa 58:13-14)
I. Picking grain (Matt 12:1-8)
J. Healing disease (Matt 12:9-14; Luke 13:10, 14-17)
K. Healing disease and transporting property (John 5:1-10, 16-18; 7:21-23)
The Measure of Sabbath Observance: Understanding the Principles of Setting Apart—or—How Should One Sanctify the Sabbath?
A. Setting apart from what constitutes work
     1. Preparing food
     2. Conducting business
B. Setting apart for what constitutes rest
     Worshiping together

Endnotes 39

Monday, June 16, 2014

Is the Sabbath a universal requirement?

Dr. Paul Manuel—2011

Linda and I came from a Baptist church that worshipped on Sunday, and we did not decide to keep the seventh day until we went away to college a few years after we were married. A Jewish friend had suggested that we consider the Sabbath, so we examined what the Bible taught about this and other aspects of God's law. For us, it was an exciting time of discovery. I was enthusiastic about what we learned and wanted to share this new information with other Christians but soon realized that they were not nearly as excited. Some people were unable to consider such a radical notion as the Sabbath; others were struggling with more fundamental issues; still others thought I was an extremist. Being in school during this period of change helped, as we could apply the tools of study we were acquiring to our research. Eventually, we discovered Seventh Day Baptists, and we were able to observe the Sabbath more easily.i Time and reflection also tempered my enthusiasm and allowed me to take a more nuanced approach, one that answered three questions that arise when examining the common Seventh Day Baptist claim that the Sabbath is a universal requirement, questions Seventh Day Baptists seem often unwilling or unable adequately to address.ii

Examining the Claim that the Sabbath is a Universal Requirement
  • The historical question:
  • How is the Sabbath, which God gave specifically to Israel, mandatory for all Christians?
  • The common Seventh Day Baptist position, that God gave the Sabbath to everyone, simply does not stand under close scrutiny, certainly not for the reasons Seventh Day Baptists usually give.
  • The theological question:
  • Why single out the Sabbath when it belongs to a much larger corpus of God's law?
  • The traditional Seventh Day Baptist view, that the Sabbath is part of the Decalogue, which God meant for all people and which has greater authority than His other commands, is a distinction that has no justification.iii
  • The practical (often personal) question:
  • Are Christians who do not regard the Sabbath as mandatory— the vast majority of the Church—doomed for their disobedience?
  • Here is where the issue comes closest to home, for unlike Seventh-day Adventists, who view Sunday worship as the mark of the beast and a sign of reprobation, Seventh Day Baptists recognize the gravity of disobeying God but are not ready to condemn to perdition those they actually know—their friends and family—who hold a different opinion on this matter.
The common Seventh Day Baptist position on the Sabbath does not address these problems, not in any consistent or rigorous way. It fails to consider all relevant passages, and it ignores important constraints of context. If this is what you believe, then you should be aware of the difficulties with the position and be able to support it, both carefully and comprehensively. While the result of my analysis brings me to the same point in the end, which is to keep the Sabbath, I arrive there on a different road and for different reasons.

Sunday, June 15, 2014

Why do Seventh Day Baptists Keep the Sabbath?

Dr. Paul Manuel—2005
(An earlier version appeared on this blog here)

How blessed is the man...who keeps from profaning the Sabbath.
(Isa 56:2)

Seventh-Day Baptists observe a day different from that of most other Christians. Instead of gathering on the first day of the week, Seventh Day Baptists meet together on the seventh day of the week, the biblical Sabbath. Why would they choose to separate themselves in this way? What scriptural reasons are there for worshipping and resting on the seventh day rather than on the first day? Seventh DayBaptists keep the Sabbath because...1
1. They note God's example, for He observed it at creation.2
By the seventh day God completed His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. (Gen 2:2)
For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth...and rested on the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and made it holy. (Exod 20:11)
2. They recall God's redemption, for He established it after Egypt.3
See, the Lord has given you the sabbath; therefore He gives you bread for two days on the sixth day. Remain every man in his place; let no man go out of his place on the seventh day. (Exod 16:29)
You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the Lord your God brought you out of there by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm therefore the Lord your God commanded you to observe the sabbath day. (Deut 5:15)
3. They obey God's precept, for He commanded it on Sinai.4
Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. (Exod 20:8)
Observe the sabbath day to keep it holy, as the Lord your God commanded you. (Deut 5:12)

Saturday, June 14, 2014

The Law and the Sabbath (Matt 12:1-21)

Dr. Paul Manuel—Sabbath Emphasis Day—2009

When people are committed to something, they will usually put forth their best effort, even when the task is difficult or dangerous.
One night a fire broke out in a chemical plant outside a small town. Before long, the whole building erupted into flames, and an alarm went out to neighboring communities, with several fire departments responding. After fighting the blaze for over an hour, the president of the chemical company approached the fire chief and said, "Our formulas are in the vault in the center of the plant. They must be saved! I will give $50,000 to the engine company that brings them out undamaged!" As soon as the chief heard this, he ordered his men to strengthen their efforts. After two more hours of fighting the fire, which continued to rage out of control, the president of the company doubled his offer: $100,000 to the crew that could bring out the company's files.

From the distance came the sound of a lone siren as another fire truck came into view. It was a volunteer company composed entirely of men over 65. To everyone's amazement, the engine raced through the chemical plant gates into the middle of the inferno. The other firemen watched as the old timers hopped off their rig and began to battle the fire with an effort they had never seen before. After some time of intense fighting, the company of senior firefighters had extinguished the blaze and saved the formulas. Ecstatic, the plant president announced that he would double the reward again to $200,000. After expressing his gratitude to each of the elderly volunteers, the president asked the captain of the group what they would do with the reward money. "The first thing we're going to do," the captain answered..."is fix the brakes on that truck!"
When people are committed to something, as these elderly fire fighters were committed to battling the blaze, it may not be for a reason you would expect or, as some Pharisees were committed to the Sabbath, it may not be for a reason you would commend. That is the case in Matt 12, where Jesus challenges them to reconsider their interpretation of The Law and the Sabbath.

During the Late Second Temple Period, the two great rabbinic schools of Hillel and Shammai debated a number of topics, some of which appear in the gospels. Pharisees of both schools would come to Jesus, wanting to know where he stood on such issues, especially when the schools differed. Although there is some speculation that Jesus was a student of Hillel (e.g., Falk 1985:115), he took an independent position.1 On some matters, he sided with the liberal view of Hillel (e.g., dedicated gifts); on other matters, he sided with conservative view of Shammai (e.g., vows, divorce). One of these debated issues was the manner in which a person should observe the Sabbath.

Friday, June 13, 2014

Time to reboot (Exod 23:12

TIME to REBOOT (Exod 23:12) 
Dr. Paul Manuel—Sabbath Emphasis Day—2005

Ministers look for ways to encourage their congregants to be more involved in the things of God and His church. Sometimes that effort is more successful than other times.
A minister was preoccupied with how he was going to ask the congregation to come up with more money than they were expecting for repairs to the church building. He very much wanted things to go smoothly and was a bit dismayed to learn that the regular organist was sick and that the deacons had to hunt for a substitute at the last minute. The minister barely had time before the service to let the substitute know what hymns the congregation would be singing, hurriedly adding, "You'll have to think of something to play after I make the announcement about the finances." During the service, the minister paused and said, "Brothers and Sisters, we are in great difficulty; the roof repairs cost twice as much as we expected, and we need $4,000 more. Any of you who can pledge $100 or more, please stand up." At that moment, the substitute organist played "The Star Spangled Banner." ...And that is how the substitute organist became the regular organist!
Some people just need the right incentive. That may be what God is doing as He exhorts His people to heed His commands, especially His command to keep the Sabbath.

Although Genesis records God's observing the Sabbath at creation, that first biblical book says no more about the seventh day.1 There is no indication that Adam and Eve, or Noah, or Abraham even knew about the Sabbath, let alone kept it themselves. It is not until the next book and Israel's exodus from Egypt that the Sabbath appears again, this time, with a prominence in God's plan for His people that it did not have before.2 What is the significance of the Sabbath, and how does it change life for those God has recently delivered?

Of the various passages we might consider, there is a single verse that offers some insight for us into the precept and purpose of the Sabbath. Please turn to...
Exod 23:12 "Six days do your work, but on the seventh day do not work, so that your ox and your donkey may rest and the slave born in your household, and the alien as well, may be refreshed.
Earlier in Exodus, God established...

Thursday, June 12, 2014

A time of consecration (Isa 56:2-8; 58:13-14)

A TIME OF CONSECRATION (Isa 56:2-8; 58:13-14) 
Dr. Paul Manuel—Sabbath Emphasis Day—2003

As we move along life's path, we depend upon God for such things as guidance and protection. When things do not turn out as we expect, we may have to revise our understanding of His involvement.
One Sabbath morning a little girl in her best dress was running so she wouldn't be late for church. As she ran she kept praying, "Dear God, please don't let me be late to church. Please don't let me be late to church...." As she was running, she tripped and fell. When she got back up, she began praying again, "God, please don't let me be late to church...but don't shove me either!"
Does God ever shove us? Does He help us along just so far and then push us out of the way or just leave us to fend for ourselves? That is a question some gentile believers in Babylon seem to be asking, as they hear Isaiah's prophetic message.

When the Southern Kingdom of Judah fell to invading Babylonian forces (587 B.C.), the people left the Promised Land for exile in a foreign land. How could they keep from suffering the same fate as their brethren in the Northern Kingdom of Israel, whom the Assyrians had deported earlier (722 B.C.) and who had apparently assimilated into the gentile milieu? How could the former residents of Judah maintain their identity as God's people? The answer lay in their covenant with God, a commitment they demonstrated by their obedience to His commands. That is what made them different from other people, and that is what marked them as God's people. Some instructions the Lord gave at Sinai had parallels in other Ancient Near East law codes (e.g., prohibitions against murder and theft). Other instructions were unique to His people (e.g., dietary regulations). One such command was particularly distinctive because it had a very apparent and recurrent display—observing the Sabbath.

Wednesday, June 11, 2014

The seventh day (Lev 23:3)

Dr. Paul Manuel—Sabbath Emphasis Day—2002

What defines you as a Christian? How do other people know who you are? You can tell them, of course, but the most obvious indicator is how you act, especially under pressure.
A minister was on a plane, flying from Chicago to California, when it ran into severe turbulence. As it got worse, the passengers became more and more alarmed, and even the flight attendants began to look concerned. Finally, an attendant noticed that one of the names on the passenger list had "REV." in front of it. She approached him and said, "Sir, this is really frightening. Do you suppose you could...I don't something religious?" "Of course," the minister replied.... So he took up a collection.
There are many ways you can identify yourself as religious. One way, better than taking an offering, is your treatment of God's precepts, including The Seventh Day.

After the six days of creation, Genesis records that God rested from His labor on the seventh day, establishing a precedent for something He would recall many years later. That initial account gives few details, simply that...
Gen 2:3 ...God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work of creating that he had done.
What implications God's decision might have had for others is unclear—perhaps none. There is no command here; neither is there evidence that anyone in Genesis followed His example. In fact, the issue of the Sabbath does not come up again until the book of Exodus when God commands Israel to observe it. From that point, the Sabbath receives extensive treatment, along with the rest of the Pentateuch as it offers instruction for God's people.1 Some passages about the seventh day are fairly long, yet even the shortest can offer important information.
Lev 23:3 There are six days when you may work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of rest, a day of sacred assembly. You are not to do any work; wherever you live, it is a Sabbath to the LORD.

Friday, June 6, 2014


Dr. Paul Manuel—2001

Because of the length of this study most of it is available only in this pdf.


I. Semantic Range of "Peace" in the Bible     2
A. The Hebrew verb
B. The Hebrew noun
C. The Greek verb
D. The Greek noun
II. Common Uses of "Peace" in the Bible
A. Relational Peace
  1. Interpersonal: harmony between individuals      8
  2. International: freedom from war     13
B. Personal Peace
  1. Physical: welfare, health, prosperity      22
  2. Mental: tranquility, confidence, contentment      27
Appendix: of "Other Verses"      31
Bibliography      47
Endnotes      48

After the terrorist attacks on September 11, the notion of peace has come under considerable scrutiny. What is it, and what price are we willing to pay for it? How do we achieve it? ...What comes to mind when you think of "peace"? The Oxford American Dictionary gives five uses of the word in American English (Ehrlich 1980:491):
  1. A state of freedom from war, cessation of war
  2. A treaty ending a war
  3. Freedom from civil disorder
  4. Quiet, calm, freedom from anxiety
  5. A state of harmony between people, absence of strife
In almost all cases, we use "peace" to mean the absence of something bad: war, disorder, anxiety, strife.

For example, on the international level, peace is the absence of war between otherwise hostile countries, and we label relationships accordingly. Sometimes, peace is not the right term, such as in characterizing our relationship with England. In that case, we say that Great Britain is "a friend" of the US rather than that Great Britain is "at peace" with the US, because the phrase "at peace" does not convey the close ties our country enjoys with England. On the other hand, "at peace" would be an accurate description of our relationship to the Soviet Union, at least before perestroika.

The Greek word for peace is eirene (irenic [adj.] "promoting peace", Irene [PN]). It means much the same as our English word: the absence of conflict. In biblical literature, however, the Greek word comes under the influence of its Hebrew counterpart shalom and the meaning—at least in the LXX and New Testament documents—takes on the significance of the word in the Hebrew Old Testament (Carr 1980 2:931; Beck 1976 2:780; Foerster 1964a 2:406). We will begin with a general survey and ask the question: How does the biblical definition of peace compare with the modern definition?

There is both a verb form and a noun form of this word in Hebrew and Greek. We will focus on the noun, but to show you the similarities I will list the major uses of the verb.1 ....

For the Study (46 pages) and its Bibliography and Endnotes, see the pdf here.

Thursday, June 5, 2014

Standing up to peer pressure

Dr. Paul Manuel—Scout Sabbath—2007

Because we have several additional young people here this morning, I thought it would be a good opportunity for the rest of you to impress them with your biblical knowledge, so that they could see what you have learned in your many years of study. To that end, I am going to give the adults here a brief quiz, just nine questions. You can jot the answers on the back of the sermon outline.
Q: What was Noah's occupation? ...Was he a farmer, a bricklayer, or something else?
A: He was an arkitecht.

Q. Why was Noah the greatest financier in the Bible?
A. He was floating his stock while everyone else was in liquidation.

Q: What was the name of Noah's wife? (This is really trivia.)
A: Joan of Ark

Q: While Noah was on the ark, why did he not spend time fishing?
A: He only had two worms.

Q: Why did those two worms not get on the ark in an apple?
A: Because everyone had to go on in pairs (pears)

Q: Where did Noah keep the bees?
A: In an ark-hive

Q: How did Noah keep track of the animals at night?
A: He used floodlights.

Q: What is the one tool Noah wished he had during the construction?
A: An ark-welder.

Q: What was Noah's theme song?
A: "Raindrops Keep Falling On My Head"
However difficult you may have found the questions of that quiz, it was nothing to what Noah faced, even before the flood, as he encountered the Problems and Prospects of Peer Pressure.

After God created the world, people did what most people do, and the Bible records some of what that entailed. They had jobs, got married, and raised families, but life was not always smooth.1
  • Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden of Eden for their disobedience.
  • Cain, angry that God rejected his offering but accepted his brother's offering, murdered his brother Abel.
  • Lamach, one of Cain's descendants, was an even more violent man and boasted about having killed many people.
To be sure, there were some bright spots in man's early history.2
  • Seth and his son Enosh seem to have started a trend as "men began to call on the name of the LORD" (Gen 4:26b).
  • Their descendant Enoch is recorded to have had an especially close relationship to God for "300 years" (Gen 5:22a).
The general direction of society, though, is downward, away from God, as people grow more completely sinful. After several generations, man's wickedness hits bottom. Please turn to Gen 6, where we read that by then...