Friday, June 10, 2016

Oral Torah

Dr. Paul Manuel—2016

When Christians think about Old Testament law, they often consider only the Decalogue, but the people of Israel had one of the most detailed legal codes in the Ancient Near East (613 precepts in the Pentateuch alone by rabbinic count). These regulations covered many aspects of life—religious and secular—for many classes of people—priests, merchants, farmers, kings. Because even such an extensive list cannot encompass every contingency, including new situations, there arose a need to supplement the list with additional laws. Hence, two legal corpuses developed, one written and another oral. Written law, the main legal body, was copied and recopied. Oral law, a lessor legal body (with varying degrees of authority), was memorized and transmitted by word of mouth. Consequently, what was written was more enduring, whereas what was oral was less enduring (until some of it was codified, first in the Mishnah). Still, remnants of oral law remain even today, as do later additions to meet new situations.

I. Early evidence of Oral Torah (in the Old Testament)
A. Some unwritten laws existed alongside the written law.
There are hints in Written Torah of an Oral Torah that was transmitted with it. Two passages in particular suggest that God revealed more details to His people about what He expected than what Moses recorded:
If men who are fighting hit a pregnant woman and she gives birth prematurely but there is no serious injury, the offender must be fined whatever the woman's husband demands and the court allows. But if there is serious injury, you are to take life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise. (Exod 21:22-27)
Oral Torah explains that the second group of infractions has a greater monetary fine.
Throughout the generations to come you are to make tassels on the corners of your garments, with a blue cord on each tassel (Num 15:38).
Oral Torah explains that the blue dye come from a particular mollusk.
Fix these words of mine in your hearts and minds; tie them as symbols on your hands and bind them on your foreheads (Deut 11:18).
Oral Torah explains the construction of tefillin.
If the place where the LORD your God chooses to put his Name is too far away from you, you may slaughter animals from the herds and flocks the LORD has given you, as I have commanded you... (Deut 12:21).
Oral Torah details the various requirements for ritual slaughter.
If a man marries a woman who becomes displeasing to him because he finds something indecent about her, and he writes her a certificate of divorce, gives it to her and sends her from his house (Deut 24:1).
Oral Torah details the various requirements for certifying divorce.

These laws came originally to Moses with additional information that explained how God's people should implement them.

Monday, June 6, 2016

"Like the stars for ever and ever" (Daniel 12:1-4)

(Daniel 12:1-4)
Dr. Paul Manuel—2016

Most of us consider ourselves broadminded enough to admit that there are two sides to every argument. First and foremost, there is our side, and then there is the side that no reasonably intelligent, informed, sane, and self-respecting person could possibly hold. The message this morning does not so much have two sides as two options, in fact Only Two Options, one of which no reasonably intelligent, informed, sane, and self-respecting person should choose, but many do, to the consternation of those who choose the other option.

To many Christians the book of Daniel is a mystery, not so much the story parts but the prophecy parts. The stories in the first half of the book are straight forward enough: “Daniel in the Lion’s Den” and “Three Men in the Fiery Furnace” both tell about the trouble devout Jews had during the Babylonian exile and how God protected them. Such stories demonstrated to those in captivity that the Lord had not abandoned His people and would yet restore them if they would only remain loyal to Him. Those stories are familiar and easy to understand, even for children. The prophecies in the second half of the book, however, are not easy to understand. Visions of fantastical creatures, like the “Four Great Beasts,” and numbered time periods, like the “Seventy Weeks,” both tell about future events but with imagery and calculations that are confusing and stand in sharp contrast with the simple narrative of the stories. It is something of a relief, therefore, when the book closes with a straightforward, albeit disturbing, assertion of what people will face in the end, that there are Only Two Options for how they will spend eternity. It is a message that is troubling for some and comforting for others.
Dan 12:1 “At that time Michael, the great prince who protects your people, will arise. There will be a time of distress such as has not happened from the beginning of nations until then. But at that time your people—everyone whose name is found written in the book—will be delivered. 2 Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake: some to everlasting life, others to shame and everlasting contempt. 3 Those who are wise will shine like the brightness of the heavens, and those who lead many to righteousness, like the stars for ever and ever. 4 But you, Daniel, close up and seal the words of the scroll until the time of the end. Many will go here and there to increase knowledge.”
As the chapter opens…
I. God speaks to Israel (v. 1).
Dan 12:1 “At that time Michael,1 the great prince who protects your people, will arise. There will be a time of distress such as has not happened from the beginning of nations until then. But at that time your people—everyone whose name is found written in the book—will be “delivered.
Daniel describes a time of unprecedented turmoil for God’s people.2 Others mention the same period:

Sunday, May 29, 2016

First Peter

Dr. Paul Manuel—2016

The complete study isn't available online but, along with its Bibliography and Endnotes, it can be downloaded as a pdf here.

Refined by Fire:1 The First Epistle of Peter

  • Peter extends his greeting (1:1-2).
I. In view of their privilege
A. Believers must live in hope (1:3-9).
B. Believers must live in holiness (1:10-16).
C. Believers must live in humility (1:17-25).
Application: Does your present lifestyle reflect gratitude for your future lifestyle (1 Pet 1:4)?

II. In view of their pedigree
A. They must minister as a holy priesthood (2:1-8).
B. They must minister as a chosen people (2:9-12).
Application: Do you use the light of God in you to steer peoples’ attention to the One you serve (2 Cor 4:4, 6, 17)?

III. In view of their position
A. Citizens must obey their government (2:13-17).
B. Slaves must obey their masters (2:18-25).
C. Wives must obey their husbands (3:1-6).
D. Husbands must respect their wives (3:7).
E. All must love their brethren (3:8-12).
Application: The character qualities for elders and deacons are similar, but the offices have different duties:
  • Deacons are responsible for the physical needs of congregants (Acts 2:2-4).
  • Elders are responsible for the spiritual needs of congregants (Acts 20:28a; 1 Tim 5:17a).
IV. In view of their persecution (3:13-4:19)
A. Turn suffering to opportunity (3:13-22).
B. Turn suffering to testimony (4:1-6).
C. Turn suffering to ministry (4:7-11).
D. Turn suffering to expectancy (4:12-19).
Application: You do not determine when you will die, only how you will live (Eccl 8:8a).

V. In view of their position, again (5:1-11)
A. Elders must shepherd the Lord’s people (5:1-4).
B. Congregants must resist the devil’s attacks (5:5-11).
Application: When you experience a serious problem, it may be helpful to realize you are not alone, that others are experiencing similarly difficult times (1 Pet 5:9).
  • Peter extends his farewell (5:12-14).

Monday, May 9, 2016


Dr. Paul Manuel—2016

Late First Century Ossuary (allegedly) of James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus1
The complete study isn't available online but, along with its Bibliography and Endnotes, it can be downloaded as a pdf here.

Below find an outline and the beginning of the study.

The Epistle of James
  • James extends his greetings (James 1:1).
I. The Believer and Temptation (James 1)
A. God can bring advantages from difficult situations (vv. 2–12).
1. Trials and testing produce perseverance and maturity (vv. 2–9).
2. Humility and endurance produce blessing and reward (vv. 9–12).
B. God is not necessarily the cause of difficult situations (vv. 13–18).
C. Believers must respond properly in difficult situations (vv. 19–27).
Application: Make sure you engage your mind before you engage your mouth (Prov 13:3).

II. The Believer and Balance (James 2)
A. The partiality among congregants causes division (vv. 1–13).
B. The interplay of faith and works requires balance (vv. 14–26).
Application: You are preparing your case now for how you will be presenting your case later (2 Cor 5:110).

III. The Believer and Speech (James 3)
A. He must keep his tongue in check (vv. 1–12).
B. He must avail himself of godly wisdom (vv. 13–18).
Application: Godly character does not come naturally; you must practice it if you want to posses it (Jms 3:17).

IV. The Believer and Humility (James 4)
A. The cause of many disputes is pride (vv. 1–6).
B. The cure for many disputes is humility (vv. 7–10).
C. The complement (to humility) in many disputes is love (vv. 11–12).
D. The complication to many disputes is boasting (vv. 13–17).
Application: Do not allow an occasion of tension to become a cause of division (Matt 7:12).

V. The Believer and Prayer (James 5)
A. He should not brag about the future (vv. 1-6).
B. He should persevere in prayer (vv. 7–12).
C. He should petition for the congregation’s health (vv. 13–20).
Application: As much as you are able, be alert to what you can do, especially to pray for each other’s spiritual condition and to help each other stay the spiritual course (Eph 6:18).

Monday, April 25, 2016

Adopting the Sabbath

A Brief Reflection on My Spiritual Journey
Dr. Paul Manuel—2016

Dr. Manuel's response when asked how he and Linda, his wife, came to observe the seventh day Sabbath.

In the early 1970s, I met a messianic Jew who challenged me to consider adopting the Sabbath. I did so but realized that it was only one of several interconnected issues from God's law—such as circumcision, diet, and festivals—all of which required that I now settle another question: Having taken this step, did God expect me to go further, even convert to Judaism? Some gentiles in the messianic movement had done so. If that is also what He expected from me, then adopting those other issues would soon follow. If that is not what He expected from me, then deciding which issues to accept would require careful consideration.

Two passages in particular helped clarify the matter and shape my decision. The first clarifying passage was the Jerusalem council's pronouncement when it faced a similar question: Do gentiles need to become Jews in order to be saved?1
Acts 15:1 Some men came down from Judea to Antioch and were teaching the brothers: "Unless you are circumcised, according to the custom taught by Moses, you cannot be saved." 2 This brought Paul and Barnabas into sharp dispute and debate with them. So Paul and Barnabas were appointed, along with some other believers, to go up to Jerusalem to see the apostles and elders about this question.... 4 When they came to Jerusalem, they were welcomed by the church and the apostles and elders, to whom they reported everything God had done through them. 5 Then some of the believers who belonged to the party of the Pharisees stood up and said, "The Gentiles must be circumcised and required to obey the law of Moses." 6 The apostles and elders met to consider this question. 7a After Much discussion, Peter got up and addressed them: ... 11 We believe it is through the grace of our Lord Jesus that we are saved, just as they are." 13a [Then] James spoke up.... 19 "It is my judgment ... that we should not make it difficult for the Gentiles who are turning to God. 20 Instead we should write to them, telling them to abstain from food polluted by idols, from sexual immorality, from the meat of strangled animals, and from blood. 21 For Moses has been preached in every city from the earliest times and is read in the synagogues on every Sabbath."
The council ruled that salvation was not dependent on circumcision (i.e., conversion). That is, gentiles do not need to become Jews in order to be saved.

Sunday, April 24, 2016


Dr. Paul Manuel—2016

Because of its length (38 pages) the complete study isn't available online but, along with its Bibliography and Endnotes, it can be viewed or downloaded as a pdf here.

Below find an outline of the contents and the first few pages of the study.


I. Jesus is God's primary spokesman (Hebrews 1:1-4).
A. He excelled as the son of God (vv. 2b, 4a).
B. He helped in the creation of God (vv. 2c, 3c).
C. He identified with the person of God (v. 3a-b).
D. He submitted to the mission of God (v. 3d).
E. He ascended by the throne of God (v. 3e).
Application: The clear and consistent testimony of scripture is that Jesus is deity equal to God the Father (John 10:30-33; Mark 2:10-12; Phil 2:6).

II. Jesus is God's preeminent agent (Hebrews 1:5-7:28).
A. He is superior to angels (1:5-2:18).
B. He is superior to Moses (3:1-4:13).
C. He is superior to Aaron (4:14-7:28).
Application: If others know they can depend on what you say, then you will not need to bolster what you say with additional certification (e.g., "I swear"; Matt 5:37a).

III. Jesus is God's priestly minister (Hebrews 8:1-10:18).
A. He promotes a superior covenant (8:1-13).
B. He presides (in) a superior tabernacle (9:1-14).
Application: Jesus says your perseverance now will determine your position then (Matt 5:17a, 19). Although obedience to God's commands does not determine your reconciliation to Him—which is only by grace through faith—obedience does determine your reward from Him.

IV. Jesus is man's perseverance model (Hebrews 10:19-12:29).
A. He provides an assurance of faith (10:19-39).
B. He presents several examples of faith (11:1-40).
C. He prizes the endurance of faith (12:1-17).
D. He prepares an unshakeable kingdom (12:18-29).
Application: Gratitude is to be a regular, even frequent, part of the believer's life (1 Thess 5:18).

V. Jesus is the author's last word (Hebrews 13:1-25).
A. He offers some final exhortations (13:1-19).
1. Hospitality (vv. 1-3; cf. 1 Pet 4:9)
2. Marriage (v. 4; cf. Col 3:18-19)
3. Money (vv. 5-6; cf. 1 Tim 6:6, 10)
4. Leaders (vv. 7-8; cf. Rom 12:6a, 8d)
5. Food (vv. 9-14; cf. Acts 15:29a; Rom 14:20b)
6. Gratitude (vv. 15-16; cf. 1 Thess 5:18; Gal 6:10)
7. Authority (v. 17; cf. Rom 13:1-2a, 5)
8. Prayer (vv. 18-19; cf. Eph 6:18-20)
B. He gives a closing benediction (13:20-25).
Application: Endeavor to implement two issues from this list each week, until you have applied all eight.

Tuesday, April 5, 2016


Dr. Paul Manuel—1998
Statue of St Matthew by Camillo Rusconi, Archbasilica of St John Lateran, Vatican

Because of its length (211 pages) the complete study isn't available online but, along with its Bibliography and Endnotes, it can be downloaded as a pdf here.

Below find a table of contents and an introductory prologue.

  • Prologue
Query: Is the New Testament anti-Semitic?
I. Narrative: Jesus’ Birth to Early Ministry, Matt. 1:1-4:25
A. Matthew records his genealogy. 1:1-17
B. Matthew recounts his birth. 1:18-23
Excursus: The use of puns in names (79x)
Quiz: Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament
C. Magi visit him. 2:1-12
D. He escapes to Egypt. 2:13-23
E. John baptizes him. 3:1-17
F. Satan tempts him. 4:1-11
G. He ministers in Galilee. 4:12-25
II. Discourse: The Sermon on the Mount, Matt 5:1-7:29
A. He teaches the beatitudes. 5:1-12
B. He teaches about salt and light. 5:13-16
C. He teaches about the Torah. 5:17-48
Query: Is Jesus prohibiting divorce?
Query: Is Jesus forbidding oaths?
Query: Is Jesus advocating pacifism?
D. He teaches about acts of righteous. 6:1-18
Query: Is Jesus condemning public…prayer?
Charts: The Halakah of Jesus in Matt 5 and 6
E. He teaches about wealth. 6:19-34
F. He teaches about judgments. 7:1-29
III. Narrative: Jesus’ First Ministry in Galilee, Matt 8:1-9:38
A. He heals many. 8:1-17
B. He explains about discipleship. 8:18-22
C. He calms the sea. 8:23-27
D. He heals more. 8:28-9:8
E. He summons Matthew. 9:9-13
F. He explains about fasting. 9:14-17
G. He heals even more. 9:18-34
H. He calls for workers. 9:35-38
IV. Discourse: The Mission of the Disciples, Matt 10:1-42
Chart: Jesus’ Commissions to the Disciples
A. He commissions them. 10:1-16
B. He warns them. 10:17-42
V. Narrative: Jesus’ Second Ministry in Galilee, Matt 11:1-12:50
A. He confirms his identity. 11:1-19
B. He condemns the cities. 11:20-24
C. He invites the weary. 11:25-30
D. He is Lord of the Sabbath. 12:1-14
Query: Does Jesus support a change of Sabbath to Sunday?
E. He heals many. 12:15-37
F. He cites an unforgivable sin. 12:30-37
G. He elevates the sign of Jonah. 12:38-45

Thursday, March 31, 2016


Dr. Paul Manuel—2016

An Outline of Ezekiel

I. The Condemnation of the Nation (1:1-24:27)
A. The Call of Ezekiel (1:1-3:27)
1. The prophet has an initial vision—the LORD enthroned (1:1-28).
Application: You must live as citizens of the kingdom and servants of the king.
2. The prophet receives a commission from the LORD (2:1-3:27).
Application: God does not hold you responsible for the success of your assignment, which falls squarely on “whoever will listen” (1 Pet 3:15).
B. The Siege of Jerusalem (4:1-17)
C. The Destruction of Jerusalem (5:1-17)
D. The Judgment of God (6:1-7:27)
1. The prophet issues an oracle against the mountains (6:1-14).
2. The prophet issues an oracle against the countryside (7:1-27).
E. The Practice of Idolatry (8:1-11:25)
1. The LORD reveals the idols in the temple (8:1-18).
2. The LORD judges the idolaters in the temple (9:1-11).
3. The prophet sees the glory depart from the temple (10:1-22).
4. The LORD judges the leaders of the nation (11:1-25).
F. The Exile as Symbolic (12:1-28)
G. The Case Against Judah (13:1-24:7)
1. The prophet issues an oracle against false prophets (13:1-23).
Application: Apart from the accuracy of a prediction there are two other factors to identifying false teachers.
  • Consider the character of the messenger (Deut 18:14-15).
  • Consider the consistency (content) of the message (Deut 18:20).
2. The prophet issues an oracle against false gods (14:1-23).
3. Jerusalem is a worthless vine (15:1-8).
4. Jerusalem is an unfaithful wife (16:1-63).
5. The prophet tells a parable about two trees (17:1-24).
6. The prophet corrects a common proverb (18:1-32).
7. The prophet laments for Israel’s princes (19:1-14).
Application: Even if you are not enamored with your political leaders, you are still obligated to pray for them (1 Tim 2:1-2). The subject of such prayer is not their personal prosperity but that they might not hinder your righteous pursuits.
8. The prophet condemns Israel’s rebellion (20:1-49).
9. Babylon is the sword of the Lord (21:1-32).
10. Jerusalem is a city of bloodshed (22:1-30).
Application: While you need not respond to every hint of injustice, you should not lead such a quiet life as to be invisible (Matt 5:13-14; (2 Cor 10:5; Eph 2:10).
11. The prophet tells a parable about two adulterous sisters (23:1-49).
12. The prophet tells a parable about a cooking pot (24:1-14).
13. The prophet receives the news of his wife’s death (24:15-27).
Application: God may use your loss to prepare you to comfort someone who has also experienced loss and, thereby, for you both to know Him better (2 Cor 1:3).
H. The Condemnation of Gentiles (25:1-32:32)
1. The prophet issues an oracle against Ammon (25:1-7).
2. The prophet issues an oracle against Moab (25:8-11).
3. The prophet issues an oracle against Edom (25:12-14).
4. The prophet issues an oracle against Philistia (25:15-17).
5. The prophet issues an oracle against Tyre (26:1-28:19).
6. The prophet issues an oracle against Sidon (28:20-26).
7. The prophet issues an oracle against Egypt (29:1-32:32).

Sunday, February 21, 2016

When God is silent

Dr. Paul Manuel—2016

According to what the scriptures teach, God answers the petitionary prayer of the righteous believer that meets three conditions:
  • He must pray in the right direction (i.e., to God the Father not anyone else).
  • For the singular devotion of the disciple, who appeals “to [his] Father” in heaven, God will “reward” him.
Pray to your Father, who is unseen. Then your Father, who sees what is done in secret, will reward you…. This, then, is how you should pray: “Our Father in heaven…” (Matt 6:6, 9)
  • He must pray in the right condition (i.e., with persistent obedience not occasional compliance).
  • For the submissive lifestyle of the pious, who “does His will,” God will “listen” to him.
We know that God does not listen to sinners. He listens to the godly man who does his will. (John 9:31)
  • He must pray with the right motivation (i.e., for divine satisfaction not personal gratification).
  • For the godly desire of the selfless, who wants only what accords with “His will,” God will grant his request.
This is the confidence we have in approaching God: that if we ask anything according to his will, he hears us. (1 John 5:14)
These three conditions are what God requires from His people in order for Him to heed (not merely hear) their prayers. When God does not answer, it is because the individual praying has violated one or more of these conditions. Absent any violation, God will answer the prayer of His people. That was David’s confidence: “In the day of my trouble I will call to you, for you will answer me.” (Ps 86:7), and that is God’s commitment: “He will call upon me, and I will answer him.” (Ps 91:15)

Tuesday, February 9, 2016

Sermon: "If it is from God..." (Acts 5:33-39)

Dr. Paul Manuel—2015

Most people want to be helpful and, given the opportunity, will jump at the chance, especially if it does not require any special effort on their part.
A young officer was working late at the Pentagon one evening. As he came out of his office, he saw a General standing by the classified document shredder in the hallway, a piece of paper in his hand. “Do you know how to work this thing?” the General asked. “My secretary has gone home and I don’t know how to run it.” “Yes, sir,” said the young officer, who turned on the machine, took the paper from the General, and fed it in. “Now,” said the General… “I just need one copy.”
Most people want to be helpful, but some individuals have a particular idea about what being helpful constitutes. In today’s passage, for example, we see Gamaliel’s Counsel as he tries to help some members of the Sanhedrin who oppose Jesus and who normally look for help only from those who also oppose Jesus, as this rabbi tries to help them see the big picture of what God may be doing.

For Christians, Jesus was the most well-known rabbi in First Century Judaism, but he was not the only one at this time nor the most famous among Jews. The New Testament names another, who appears also in contemporary Jewish literature: Gamaliel.1 In this passage, he is the voice of reason at a time when the fledgling messianic movement faced considerable opposition from certain mainline adherents. The Sanhedrin, the Jewish ruling counsel, was composed of members from the two main religious/political groups in the first century: Sadducees and Pharisees (which have some parallels to modern political parties: Democrats/Progressives and Republicans/Conservatives).2 At this time, the Sanhedrin was controlled by a Sadducean majority that was not always favorably disposed toward the other party. (Note: Jesus was probably a Pharisee) The Council issued an arrest warrant for the apostles and was ready to have them executed:3
“We gave you strict orders not to teach in [Jesus’] name…. Yet you have filled Jerusalem with your teaching and are determined to make us guilty of this man’s blood.” (Acts 5:28)
Before the Council can act on this motion, at least one cooler head prevails.4
A Pharisee named Gamaliel,5 a teacher of the law, who was honored by all the people, stood up in the Sanhedrin and ordered that the men be put outside for a little while. Then he addressed them: “Men of Israel, consider carefully what you intend to do to these men. (Acts 5:34-35)

Monday, February 8, 2016

Sermon: "Why this waste?" (Matt 26:6-13)

Ignore the Poor (Matt 26:6-13)
Dr. Paul Manuel—2015

Sometimes the commitments we make require us to be proactive, to be decisive and take initiative in what we do.
“Darn!” the man said to his friend while weighing himself at the local drug store scale. “I started on a new diet, but the scale says I’m heavier than I was before.” Turning to his friend, he said, “Here, hold my jacket.” The scale still indicated that he had not lost any weight. “OK,” he said to his friend. “Here, hold my Twinkies.”
Sometimes the commitments we make require us to be proactive, to be decisive and take initiative in what we do. Mary felt that her commitment to discipleship required that she be proactive, which she is in our passage this morning.

Throughout his ministry Jesus shows concern for the less fortunate, whether they be afflicted by disease, subject to demonic attack, or financially disadvantaged. It is the third group, those financially disadvantaged, that Jesus addresses in this passage, as he seems to suggest his disciples Ignore the Poor.1

Matthew opens chapter 26 with Jesus’ prediction of his impending death and a description of the high priest’s plot against him. The author then relates a dinner with one of Jesus’ benefactors,2 a man he may have earlier raised from the dead.3 At some point during the gathering, a woman (whom John identifies as Mary, sister of Lazarus) brings oil to anoint Jesus:4
While Jesus was in Bethany in the home of a man known as Simon the Leper,5 a woman [Mary] came to him with an alabaster jar of very expensive perfume, which she poured on his head as he was reclining at the table. (Matt 26:6-7)
This causes quite a stir among the disciples:
When the disciples [Judas, in particular] saw this, they were indignant. “Why this waste?” they asked. “This perfume could have been sold at a high price and the money given to the poor.” (Matt 26:8-9)
Jesus’ response puts the matter in perspective:

Sunday, February 7, 2016

Sermon: Unmourned (2 Chr 21:4-20)

(2 Chr 21:4-20)
Dr. Paul Manuel—2015

It is a testimony to a person’s popularity when people want to spend time with him even when he is no longer available.
Jim decided that a haunted house would be a good fund-raising project for his local service organization, and a funeral home agreed to lend him a casket to enhance the desired effect. Not having a truck, Jim hauled the coffin in a boat on a trailer. When he stopped for gas, the station attendant was fascinated by the peculiar sight. Jim explained: “The old boy enjoyed fishing so much, I thought I’d take him one more time.”
It is a testimony to a person’s popularity when people want to spend time with him even when he is no longer available. It is a testimony to a person’s unpopularity when people want nothing to do with him when he is no longer available and are, in fact, glad to see him go. That was certainly the case with The Monarch No One Mourned.

God made the descendants of Abraham central to His plan and has retained His commitment to them despite a mixed record of their commitment to Him.
2 Chr 21:7 [B]ecause of the covenant the LORD had made with David, the LORD was not willing to destroy the house of David. He had promised to maintain a lamp for him and his descendants forever.
With this statement, God expresses His reluctance to withdraw support for Israel, even when the ruler in office is unfaithful, like Jehoram, the subject of this chapter. Different cultures have different customs to mark the passing of someone from this life. Often these customs reflect religious beliefs about the disposition of the dead: where they go, what their needs may be, whether or not they have continued contact with the living. Those who remain behind in this life also mark death variously.1 We may place a notice in the newspaper giving certain details about that person—the dates of his birth and death, his education and his vocation, the members of his family—facts that give people who may not have known him a picture of his sojourn “on this terrestrial ball.”2 There is often a funeral or wake, providing survivors opportunity to remember him and to celebrate his life. If there is a cemetery marker, it may include some details from the obituary, as well as a term of endearment by those who knew him best (e.g., “loving husband and father”). What line would you like on your marker?

People in the Bible also had different customs to indicate the passing of someone from this life. There may have been a funeral procession to accompany the deceased to his final resting place, complete with mourners to lament his passing. The grave site may have been marked or unmarked, elaborate or plain, depending on the stature of the deceased.3 Royalty occupied a special place in society, and their tombs were often prominent landmarks.

After Solomon, the nation he had ruled divided into north and south, with each division having its own government, including a king. The kings of Israel, in the north, were all unrighteous, overseeing a people that had primarily abandoned the Lord.4 The kings of Judah, in the south, were mixed in their devotion to God, with some being righteous and others unrighteous, overseeing a people that was also mixed in its devotion.5 Jehoram was one of the unrighteous kings in the south:6

Saturday, February 6, 2016

Sermon: Two trees

(Genesis 2:16-17; 3:22; 24; Revelation 22:2;14,19)
Dr. Paul Manuel—2015

When parents talk to their children, especially when giving them instructions, those parents may wonder if their children are actually paying attention.
A mother was helping her son review his math while her daughter was in the next room. “You have seven dollars and seven friends.” she said. “You give a dollar to two of them but none to the others. What do you have left?” From the next room her daughter called out… “Two friends.”
When parents talk to their children, especially when giving them instructions, those parents may wonder if their children are actually paying attention. When God first gave instructions to Adam and Eve, they were not paying attention, and they ignored some very important instructions.

In the beginning, when God created the earth and man,1 He placed our first parents in an idyllic setting, the Garden of Eden, where there was an ample food supply, with a variety of options:
The LORD God made all kinds of trees grow out of the ground—trees that were pleasing to the eye and good for food. In the middle of the garden were the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. (Gen 2:9)
They could eat anything they wanted, any of the leaves, nuts, or fruit.2 He gave them only one restriction:3
The LORD God commanded the man, “You are free to eat from any tree in the garden; but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat of it you will surely die.” (Gen 2:16-17)
This is The Tale of those Two Trees. Note that…

I. Initially, the two trees had the same accessibility.

Before the Fall of man…
A. The tree of life was unrestricted.
B. The tree of knowledge was unrestricted.
There was no fence blocking man from either tree. The only thing stopping him (or giving him pause) was God’s verbal prohibition:
You must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat of it you will surely die. (Gen 2:17)
Why would God impose this limitation? Why would God keep from man such important information as discerning the difference between right and wrong? Why would God put such information within reach of man only to deny it for him? Is not full disclosure up front the best policy? Surely man would need to make (other) moral choices in the new world order, and handicapping him would make those decisions unnecessarily difficult. But the author of Genesis does not say if God intended the restriction to be permanent or temporary.4 Perhaps He was just waiting to see if man would obey.5

Friday, February 5, 2016

Sermon: Winning the prize (1 Cor 9:24-27)

Dr. Paul Manuel—2015

As people get older, it becomes increasingly difficult to stay in good physical condition. Too little exercise and too many calories eventually affect even a once trim figure.
The army physical-training program requires soldiers to run two miles every other day in platoon formation. Jeff, being somewhat older than the others in his unit, had trouble running faster than a ten-minute mile. During a recent run, he was finding it difficult to complete the two miles without stopping, so he paused and raised his hands above his head, attempting to expand his diaphragm and gain a second wind. Suddenly, he heard a voice from behind say, “Forget it, Sarge…we don’t take prisoners.”
As people get older, it becomes increasingly difficult to stay in good physical condition, and they usually need to adopt some sort of fitness program. The same is often true of people’s spiritual condition. In our passage this morning, we have Paul’s Fitness Program, which he recommends to the Christians at Corinth.

The apostle Paul’s first letter to the church at Corinth addresses questions he received from the church (chapters 1-6) and concerns he has for the church (chapters 7-16).1 In the second section he likens the Christian experience to a physical training program, the kind one would undertake in preparation for a foot race or a boxing match.2 In Paul’s Fitness Program, he relates how one becomes an effective competitor in the Christian games of life:
1 Cor 9:24 Do you not know3 that in a race all the runners run, but only one gets the prize? Run in such a way as to get the prize. 25 Everyone who competes in the games goes into strict training. They do it to get a crown that will not last; but we do it to get a crown that will last forever. 26 Therefore I do not run like a man running aimlessly; I do not fight like a man beating the air. 27 No, I beat my body and make it my slave so that after I have preached to others, I myself will not be disqualified for the prize.
In the first century, athletic events were a popular part of Greek society and a regular source of entertainment as participants competed for prizes and fame. Sports included foot and horse races, wrestling and boxing matches, discus and javelin throwing. Participants prepared on local tracks and in gymnasiums. Because these games were common in major cities throughout the empire, Paul alluded to them frequently in his letters to various churches.4 Two of his favorite sports to use were racing and boxing because they held parallels to the Christian life. This was especially evident in the passage he wrote to believers at Corinth. He begins by stating simply:

Thursday, February 4, 2016

Sermon: The unfairness of life (Psalm 73)

Dr. Paul Manuel—2015

Good communication, the kind that makes for a smooth-running marriage, is not necessarily obvious to the average observer.
On his parents’ 50th wedding anniversary, Steve remarked that his father and mother never seemed to fight. “Oh, we argued,” his father said, “but it never amounted to much. After a while one of us always realized…that I was wrong.”
Good communication is not necessarily obvious to the average observer. In other words, there may be a difference between Perception and Reality, between the way things appear and the way they actually are. That difference is what Asaph discusses in Psalm 73.

Theodicy is an aspect of theology that deals with the presence of evil in the world. The biblical book that addresses this subjest most directly is Job, which depicts a man’s suffering in a vain attempt by Satan to undermine that man’s faith. The biblical psalm that deals with theodicy most directly is our text this morning: Psalm 73.1

There is a facade, a veneer, that covers reality as we perceive it. We see other people in situations much like our own who seem to conduct their affairs without recourse to God with equal or greater success than we do who depend on God. It makes us wonder: Why is our life not noticeably better (v. 3)? Does our commitment to Him really matter all that much (v. 13)? Those are questions Asaph, the author of Psalm 73, asks:
I envied the arrogant when I saw the prosperity of the wicked…. Surely in vain have I kept my heart pure; in vain have I washed my hands in innocence. (Psalm 73:3,13)
As we also wrestle with these questions, we must recognize at least three things, observations that the author of this psalm makes.

Asaph’s first observation is that, despite the assertion of our US constitution…
I. All people are not created equal (Psalm 73:4-5).
Some people have more ability, talent, or natural fortitude than others.
They have no struggles; their bodies are healthy and strong. They are free from the burdens common to man; they are not plagued by human ills. (vv. 4-5)
Hence, it is quite possible that you might not perform as well as others.
  • Some people are more physically endowed.2
The biblical writers identify several individuals with outstanding physical characteristics, perhaps the most impressive being a soldier in the Philistine army: Goliath.3
1 Sam 17:4b He was over nine feet tall. 5 He …wore a coat of scale armor of bronze weighing five thousand shekels [125 lbs.]…. 7a His spear shaft was like a weaver’s rod, and its iron point weighed six hundred shekels [15 lbs.]…. 24 When the Israelites saw the man, they all ran from him in great fear.
Despite his impressive appearance, however, he was no match for the Lord’s champion, a young boy (who found the king’s armor too cumbersome).
1 Sam 17:50a David triumphed over the Philistine with a sling and a stone…. 51c When the Philistines saw that their hero was dead, they turned and ran.
All people are not created equal. Some people are more physically imposing and assume they can do without God.